Explaining Human Mathematical Ability — Three Evolutionary Hypotheses

first_imgJane Goodall Meets the God Hypothesis A Physician Describes How Behe Changed His MindLife’s Origin — A “Mystery” Made AccessibleCodes Are Not Products of PhysicsIxnay on the Ambriancay PlosionexhayDesign Triangulation: My Thanksgiving Gift to All Origin of Life: Brian Miller Distills a Debate Between Dave Farina and James Tour Congratulations to Science Magazine for an Honest Portrayal of Darwin’s Descent of Man Evolution Requesting a (Partial) Retraction from Darrel Falk and BioLogos Recommended “A Summary of the Evidence for Intelligent Design”: The Study Guide Email Print Google+ Linkedin Twitter Share Email Print Google+ Linkedin Twitter Share Life Sciences Explaining Human Mathematical Ability — Three Evolutionary HypothesesWilliam A. DembskiJuly 6, 2017, 1:56 AM TagsanimalBeth AzarDarwinian theoryEugene WignerGeoffrey MillerHumanintelligent designM.D. HauserMark SteinermathematicsmonkeysPascal Boyerpeacock tailsexual selection,Trending Intelligent Design Editor’s note: Last week we launched the new online college-level curriculum to go with a beloved ID classic, The Design of Life: Discovering Signs of Intelligence in Biological Systems, by mathematician William Dembski and biologist Jonathan Wells. The curriculum is free and available here. The 300-page book is hardcover, featuring full-color illustrations and accompanied by a CD with additional materials. Get it on Amazon now. Listen to Jonathan Wells talk about this package of amazing resources on an ID the Future podcast. And enjoy the following excerpt by Dr. Dembski and Dr. Wells:Humans have many unique cognitive abilities apart from language. Evolutionary theorists have proposed three main types of hypotheses for how these abilities might have evolved: the adaptationist hypothesis, the byproduct hypothesis, and the sexual selection hypothesis. Let’s consider these hypotheses in turn with respect to a specific cognitive ability, namely, mathematics.The Adaptationist HypothesisHow did humans acquire their talent for mathematics? According to the adaptationist hypothesis, mathematical ability conferred a selective advantage on our evolutionary ancestors. Those with better mathematical abilities were as a result better able to survive and reproduce. In other words, they were better able to “adapt” to their environments (hence the term “adaptationist hypothesis”). This hypothesis has a certain plausibility when it comes to the acquisition of rudimentary mathematical abilities like simple arithmetic.For example, if one of our hunter-gatherer ancestors counted five lions earlier in the day but now sees four of them dead (killed by him and his fellow hunters), a knowledge of basic arithmetic will warn him that one lion is still on the loose. He will thus know to act cautiously, which will translate into a survival and reproductive advantage. But rudimentary mathematical abilities are one thing; developing four-dimensional Riemannian geometries that describe a curved spacetime manifold, as Albert Einstein did, is quite another. It is hardly plausible that abstract mathematics, such as the Einstein Field Equations, confers any immediate survival and reproductive advantage. Moreover, future survival and reproduction is ruled out because evolution does not “look ahead.” So the adaptationist hypothesis breaks down, and other hypotheses are required.The Byproduct HypothesisAccording to the byproduct hypothesis, higher cognitive functions like mathematics are not evolutionary adaptations at all. Instead, they are unintended byproducts of traits that are adaptive. Spectacular mathematical abilities are thus said to piggyback on adaptive traits. Pascal Boyer offers such an argument. According to him, some rudimentary ability to count and add is adaptive, but the capacity to do higher-level mathematics is a byproduct of this rudimentary ability. The higher-level capacity is not adaptive by itself; rather, it emerges as a free rider on abilities that are adaptive. But how, exactly, does rudimentary quantitative ability turn into the ability to develop curved spacetime Riemannian geometries or mathematical theories of comparable sophistication? Boyer doesn’t say.1This is always the weakness of byproduct hypotheses, namely, bridging the gap between what can be explained in standard evolutionary terms (adaptations) and the unexpected “freebies” (byproducts) that come along for the ride. Some free lunches are just too good to be true. And precisely when they are too good to be true, they require explanation. That’s especially true of mathematics: Here we have a human capacity that not only emerges, according to the byproduct hypothesis, from other capacities, but also provides fundamental insights into the structure of the physical universe (mathematics is, after all, the language of physics).2 How could a capacity like that arise as the byproduct of a blind evolutionary process, unguided by any intelligence? It is not a sufficient explanation here simply to say that it could have happened that way. Science does not trade in sheer possibilities. If our mathematical ability is the byproduct of other evolved traits, then the connection with those traits needs to be made explicit. To date, it has not been.The Sexual Selection HypothesisFinally, we turn to the sexual-selection hypothesis. Sexual selection is Darwin’s explanation for how animals acquire traits that have no direct adaptive value. Consider a stag whose antlers are so large that they are more deadweight than defense. Or a peacock whose large colored tail makes it easy prey. How do such structures evolve? According to Darwin, they evolve because they help to attract mates—they are a form of sexual display. Thus, even though these features constitute a disadvantage for survival in the greater environment, the reproductive advantage they provide in attracting mates more than adequately compensates for this disadvantage and provides an evolutionary explanation for the formation of these features.Geoffrey Miller has applied Darwin’s idea of sexual selection to explain the formation of our higher cognitive functions.3 According to him, extravagant cognitive abilities like those exhibited by mathematical geniuses are essentially a form of sexual display. Once a capacity begins to attract mates, it acts like a positive feedback loop, continually reinforcing itself. In the case of cognitive functions, such a positive feedback loop can run unchecked because there are no environmental constraints to impose limits: unlike stag antlers or peacock tails, which can only get so large before their adaptive disadvantage outweighs their ability to attract mates, higher cognitive functions can essentially increase without limits. This, for Miller, is the origin of our higher cognitive functions, and our talent for mathematics in particular.The Fundamental Weakness of These Evolutionary HypothesesLeaving aside whether mathematical ability really is a form of sexual display (most mathematicians would be surprised to learn as much), there is a fundamental problem with these hypotheses. To be sure, they presuppose that the traits in question evolved, which in itself is problematic. The main problem, however, is that none of them provides a detailed, testable model for assessing its validity. If spectacular mathematical ability is adaptive, as the adaptationist hypothesis claims, how do we determine that? What precise evolutionary steps would be needed to achieve that ability? If it is a byproduct of other abilities, as the byproduct hypothesis claims, of which abilities exactly is it a byproduct and how do these other abilities facilitate it? If it is a form of sexual display, as the sexual selection hypothesis claims, how exactly did the ability become a criterion for mate selection?In short, the main difficulty with all three hypotheses is that they attempt to account for an existing state of affairs without hard evidence of the factors that brought it about, only speculation. In the case of mathematics in particular, that is an especially severe deficit because higher mathematics is not obviously useful when it first emerges. The fact that uses are sometimes found later is, on conventional evolutionary grounds, irrelevant to its emergence. It becomes relevant only if one is justified in thinking that there is purpose in nature.Intelligent Design?Certainly, if evolution is true, then one of these hypotheses or some combination of them is likely to account for our ability to do mathematics. But even if evolution is true, in the absence of a detailed, testable model of how various higher-level cognitive functions emerged, these hypotheses are scientifically sterile. On the other hand, from an intelligent design perspective, mathematics is readily viewed as an inherent feature of intelligence and rationality. Moreover, the fact that the mathematical theorems we prove mirror the deep structure of physical reality suggests that intelligence is fundamental to nature and not merely an accidental or historical byproduct of blind material forces. The intelligence underlying nature as reflected in mathematics is a theme explored by Eugene Wigner, who referred to the “unreasonable effectiveness” of mathematics in elucidating nature.4Number Sense in AnimalsMany animals have a  basic ability to know the difference between more and less, or many and few. Rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees appear to pay more attention to a quantity if it has changed than if it hasn’t. According to M. D. Hauser, captive rhesus monkeys have been taught to understand ordinal relations from 1 to 9, but only after hundreds of training trials in conditions that are not duplicated in the wild.5 Essentially, after six months of training, some rhesus monkeys were accurate 50 percent of the time in identifying an ascending or descending order from 1 to 9.6 A weakness of this research is the high level of human interference, a point often overlooked in evolutionary literature (though not by Hauser). The monkeys develop this skill under intensive training by humans. It is unlikely that they would do so otherwise, because almost any non-destructive use of the average wild monkey’s time would be better and more immediately rewarded in nature. This fact tells against an adaptationist hypothesis in explaining even the most basic arithmetic skills, never mind abstract mathematical skills that typically only find a use after they have emerged apart from any survival goal.Notes:(1) Boyer makes this argument in Religion Explained: The Evolutionary Origins of Religious Thought (New York: Basic Books, 2001). In attempting to account for higher cognitive functions, Boyer is concerned not just with mathematics but also with art, religion, and ethics. For another byproduct approach to higher cognitive functions, see Steven Mithen, The Prehistory of the Mind: The Cognitive Origins of Art, Religion, and Science (London: Thames & Hudson, 1996). Mithen sees higher-level functions like mathematics as the byproducts of a “cognitive fluidity” that is adaptive in the sense that it facilitates the coordination and communication of various lower-level cognitive modules.(2) See especially Mark Steiner, The Applicability of Mathematics as a Philosophical Problem (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999).(3) See his book The Mating Mind: How Sexual Choice Shaped the Evolution of Human Nature (New York: Doubleday, 2000).(4) See Eugene P. Wigner, “The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences,” Communications in Applied Mathematics 13 (1960): 1. For a deeper exploration of this theme, see Steiner, The Applicability of Mathematics as a Philosophical Problem.(5) M. D. Hauser, “What Do Animals Think about Numbers?” American Scientist 88 (2) (2000): 144–51.(6) Beth Azar, “Monkeying Around with Numbers,” Monitor on Psychology: Science Watch 31(1) (January 2000): available online here (last accessed June 7, 2006).Photo credit: © goodmanphoto — stock.adobe.com. William A. DembskiBoard of Directors, Discovery InstituteA mathematician and philosopher, Bill Dembski is the author/editor of more than 20 books as well as the writer of peer-reviewed articles spanning mathematics, engineering, philosophy, and theology. A past philosophy professor, he retired in 2014 from active research and teaching in intelligent design (ID) to focus on the connections between freedom, technology, and education — specifically, how education helps to advance human freedom with the aid of technology. Bill Dembski is presently an entrepreneur who builds educational software and websites. He lives in Iowa.Follow BillProfileWebsite Sharelast_img read more

Indian Hills students get expert insight into economics issues

first_imgIndian Hills teacher Judith Schieszer (left) and KU economics professor Nadia Kardash.December, they say, is an economic proving ground for many businesses — the month that many finally move into the black for the year.Well this year, a group of young northeast Johnson County students got a first hand look at economic issues from people familiar not just with local economies, but global ones.As part of their economic course of study this past semester, Indian Hill students heard from Dr. Nadia Kardash, an economics professor at the University of Kansas who is originally from Belarus. Kardash told the Indian Hill seventh graders about what it was like growing up in a command economic system in the former Soviet Union, and what the country’s transition to a market economy was like.The students also got to hear from Kendra Frink, a manager with Ten Thousand Villages Overland Park office. The company sells fair trade artisinal crafts from around the world. Frink explained the concept of fair trade to the students and provided and outline of global economic forces.Kendra Frink, manager of Ten Thousand Villages in Overland Park.last_img read more

Sarasota reaches out to homeless veterans

first_img Sarasota reaches out to homeless veterans Over the Veterans Day weekend, a contingent of lawyers from the Sarasota County Bar Association worked with Florida Veterans for Common Sense, Inc.; Jewish Family and Children’s Service of Sarasota-Manatee, Inc.; Salvation Army; and the Sarasota County Court System to provide legal and other services to homeless vets who had misdemeanor charges, including failure to appear, violation of probation, and other similar outstanding offenses.“In addition to the legal services, the veterans were provided clothing and a hot meal,” said Jim Dirmann, a Vietnam vet and Sarasota criminal defense attorney who regularly defends vets with criminal charges after they return home from Afghanistan and Iraq. “The organizations also provided the veterans with medical, dental, and mental- health screening, and the opportunity to apply for veteran’s benefits through the VA.”Other bar members who participated were Gene Jones, president of Florida Veterans for Common Sense, Inc.; Mike Burns; Dennis Plews; Geoff Morris; Liane McCurry; Wyndel Darville; and Katie Kirwin. Judge Lee Haworth; Public Defender Larry Eger; Assistant State Attorney Art Jackman; and Court Administrator Walt Smith all contributed to the planning of the event, which provided services to approximately 50 homeless vets. Sarasota reaches out to homeless veterans December 15, 2011 Regular Newslast_img read more

When it comes to cocktail parties, musicians really know how to mingle

first_imgShare on Twitter Anyone who’s tried to hold a conversation at a bar knows that background noise can make it nearly impossible to hear what the other person is trying to say. This dilemma is officially known as the “cocktail party problem,” but scientists theorize that it doesn’t affect musicians quite as badly as it does the rest of… Pinterest Share on Facebook Email Share LinkedInlast_img

Recognizing the basic structure of language is not unique to the human brain

first_imgLinkedIn Share on Facebook Share A team led at Newcastle University, UK, has shed light on the evolutionary roots of language in the brain.Publishing in Nature Communications, the team led by Dr Ben Wilson and Professor Chris Petkov explain how using an imaging technique to explore the brain activity in humans and monkeys has identified the evolutionary origins of cognitive functions in the brain that underpin language and allow us to evaluate orderliness in sequences of sounds.This new knowledge will help our understanding of how we learn – and lose – language such as in aphasia after a stroke or in dementia. Share on Twittercenter_img Pinterest Email Scanning the brains of humans and macaque monkeys, the research team has identified the area at the front of the brain which in both humans and monkeys recognises when sequences of sounds occur in a legal order or in an unexpected, illegal order.Professor Petkov said: “Young children learn the rules of language as they develop, even before they are able to produce language. So, we used a ‘made up’ language first developed to study infants, which our lab has shown the monkeys can also learn. We then determined how the human and monkey brain evaluates the sequences of sounds from this made up language.”The team first had the humans and monkeys listen to example sequences from the made up language, allowing them to hear what were correct orderings in the sequence of sounds. They then scanned the brain activity of both species as they listened to new sequences that either had a correct order or could not have been generated by the made up language.Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed that in both groups a corresponding region of the brain – the ventral frontal and opercular cortex – responded to the order that both species had learned to expect.These results suggest that the function of this frontal region, which is one of the areas involved in processing the order of words in a sentence in human language, is shared in both humans and primates, revealing its evolutionary origins. This brain region seems to monitor the orderliness, or organisation, of what is heard, which is an important cognitive function that provides a foundation for the more complex language abilities of humans.These results provide first evidence that some of the functions of this brain area, which include understanding language in humans, are shared by other animals.Professor Petkov adds: “This will help us answer questions on how we learn language and on what goes wrong when we lose language, for example after a brain injury, stroke or dementia.”Building on these developments, the Newcastle University team, with their neurology collaborators in Cambridge and Reading Universities have begun a project to study the function of this brain region and its role in language impairment in aphasic patients with stroke, which might lead to better diagnosis and prognosis of language impairment.Professor Petkov explains: “Identifying this similarity between the monkey and human brain is also key to understanding the brain regions that support language but are not unique to us and can be studied in animal models using state-of-the-art neuroscientific technologies.”last_img read more

AMN Careers: Hotline Training Technician, AAMCO

first_imgWith more than 20 years of experience across multiple industries and functional areas, deMoulpied has particular expertise in organizations with complex technical products. Combined, his prior positions have required a spectrum of skills in corporate strategy, operations improvement, product quality, and revenue cycle management. He has an impressive history of utilizing data driven problem solving (Lean Six Sigma) and project management (PMP and CSM) to achieve strategic goals surrounding customer satisfaction, operational efficiency and improved profit.  LSI President Brett Tennar says, “Steve’s success in developing operational strategies that improves the bottom line, builds teamwork, reduces waste and ensures quality product development and distribution checks many of the boxes of what we were looking for in a COO. This, coupled with his career in the Air Force working with highly technical systems and his in-depth understanding of Lean Six Sigma and Business Process Management sealed our offer. As our tagline states, our products are Powered by Science. This data driven approach is one reason why our company has grown exponentially as we employ the most advanced technology to product development. I am confident that Steve is the right person to drive operational strategy for our diverse and growing brands.” Advertisement DeMoulpied has a Bachelor of Science degree in Engineering Management from the United States Air Force Academy and a Master of Business Administration degree from the University of Dayton in Marketing and International Business. He served six years with the USAF overseeing the development of technology used on fighter aircraft and the E-3 Surveillance aircraft, finishing his career honorably as Captain. AAMCO is looking to complement our team with a Super Automotive Technician. You must have a minimum of 10 years extensive expertise in the rebuilding, diagnosing and updating of all current automotive systems. You must also have extensive experience in root-cause analysis, pinpoint diagnostic processes and efficient, quality repair. Become part of our Technical Hotline Coaching team of Master Certified experts to our 900 franchised centers.AdvertisementClick Here to Read MoreAdvertisement To find out more about this job opportunity and to apply, see the full listing from AMN Careers.,Lubrication Specialties Inc. (LSI), manufacturer of Hot Shot’s Secret brand of performance additives and oils, recently announced the expansion of senior leadership. Steve deMoulpied joins LSI as the company’s chief operating officer (COO). AdvertisementClick Here to Read MoreAdvertisement DeMoulpied comes to LSI from the Private Client Services practice of Ernst & Young where he managed strategy & operations improvement engagements for privately held client businesses. Some of his prior roles include VP of strategic development, director of strategic initiatives, and Lean Six Sigma Master Black Belt at OptumHealth, UnitedHealth Group’s health services business, as well as Lean Six Sigma Black Belt at General Electric, where he applied operations improvement principles to customer service, supply chain and product development. A successful entrepreneur, deMoulpied is also the founder of PrestoFresh, a Cleveland-based e-commerce food/grocery business. last_img read more

Housing prices to fall back by 7% in 2010

first_imgTo access this article REGISTER NOWWould you like print copies, app and digital replica access too? SUBSCRIBE for as little as £5 per week. Would you like to read more?Register for free to finish this article.Sign up now for the following benefits:Four FREE articles of your choice per monthBreaking news, comment and analysis from industry experts as it happensChoose from our portfolio of email newsletterslast_img

Exhibition in the city

first_imgPiano Chair, 2011, 24 lambda prints face-mounted with plexiglass on aluminium panels, 34 x 60cm each, by Robin Rhode. A new exhibition called Sounding the Void, Imaging the Orchestra V.1 opens tomorrow, Thursday June 6, at the A4 Arts Foundation, 23 Buitenkant Street, Cape Town. Curated by Bhavisha Panchia, the show features works by Vivian Caccuri, Chris Chafe, Nick Cave, Andrew Pekler, Robin Rhode, Sahel Sounds and Jenna Sutela, as well as a selection of podcasts from Phantom Power and audio media from the collection of Nothing to Commit Records.“A key question that the exhibition asks is: what kind of generative opportunity lies in the act of tactful listening?” says Panchia. “I started from the proposition: how we listen determines what we hear.”The artworks in Sounding the Void, Imaging the Orchestra V.1 use audio media from vinyl records, video and installation to podcasts, web releases and performance lectures. “The works demonstrate the potential of audio to reconstruct narratives. I want to foster an assembly of voices and positions,” says Panchia.The exhibition includes Sahel Sounds, a recording project and vinyl record label dedicated to music and culture from the Sahel region of north-western Africa. Accompanying the exhibition is a public programme of talks, workshops and seminars. The exhibition runs until Thursday August 22. Gallery hours are Tuesday to Friday from 10am to 5pm and on Saturday from 10am to 2pm.last_img read more

NFL Logo Mashups

first_imgAll Activity 1,380 LAWeaver 1,204 Link to post 916 0 Forums Home 257 NFL Logo Mashups Recommended Posts Sports Logos 5,904 posts csura999 Members 9,565 posts Members Followers 0 344 posts 0 Sports Logo News Go To Topic Listing SportsLogos.Net Posted October 2, 2015 Link to post Share on other sites Link to post Members Link to post Share this post By csura999, October 2, 2015 in Sports Logo News NFL Logo Mashups Share on other sites Location:Milwaukee, WI Followers 0 432 big baller bird Sign in to follow this   Members Location:winston-salem or clemson or wherever This topic is now closed to further replies. Dnice Share on other sites SportsLogos.Net 221 Link to post 257 pcgd 432 Location:Nap Town Share this post pcgd 221 http://cdn-jpg.si.com/sites/default/files/styles/si_mobile_slide/public/images/Arizona-Cardinals-Logo-Merge_0.jpg?itok=L9hFUXsrHuh. I didn’t know Anthony Davis was the Cardinals’ inspiration for the logo…center_img 1,380 1,204 Share on other sites 1,204 Members 432 257 BlackBolt3 2001mark Location:Augusta,GA 0 Share this post Posted October 3, 2015 1,380 Found these on SI.com. There is all 32 teams:http://www.si.com/extra-mustard/2015/10/01/nfl-logo-mashup-past-present Sports Logo News 1,404 posts 916 Share on other sites Share this post Share this post http://www.si.com/extra-mustard/photos/2015/10/01/nfl-logo-mashup-past-meets-present#4I need to punch someone right now. Location:East Central Ohio Posted October 4, 2015 Posted October 2, 2015 0 The lurker formerly known as Mr.nascar13 csura999 I dig the Chiefs. Struck out looking 3 Share this post Sign in to follow this   BlackBolt3 Members 221 Posted October 4, 2015 Sports Logos Dnice 3,499 posts Link to post Posted October 2, 2015 All Activity 5,507 posts Forums Home 0 916 Share on other sites 2001mark Good ones: Lions, Texans. LAWeaver NFL Logo Mashupslast_img read more

NBA preview 2019-20: How Rockets duo Russell Westbrook, James Harden have evolved since Thunder days

first_img NBA preview 2019-20: Eastern Conference teams on the rise, fall, Rookie of the Year, predicted finish NBA preview 2019-20: What now, Warriors? Three storylines in a season after an offseason of upheaval Russell Westbrook and James Harden will be teammates once again this NBA season, and the Rockets pair have certainly evolved since their days together on the Thunder.It has been seven years since Westbrook and Harden wore the same uniform, a series-deciding Game 5 loss to the Heat in the NBA Finals when the duo each scored 19 points. NBA preview 2019-20: 10 circle-the-calendar games Harden’s contribution came from the bench — as it often did that season — and he soon moved to Houston to become the main man, a distinction he will be expected to keep despite Westbrook’s arrival this offseason.Here, using Stats Perform data, we look at how productive Westbrook and Harden were together in OKC, and how their roles have changed since. Related Newscenter_img NBA preview 2019-20: Western Conference teams on the rise, fall, Rookie of the Year, predicted finish A productive partnershipIn their final year together with the Thunder, in 2011-12, Westbrook had the best season of his career in terms of field goal percentage (45.7 percent), while Harden had what remains his best season in terms of both field goal percentage (49.1 percent) and 3-pointers made (39 percent).#Rednation pic.twitter.com/KlYH5M0jel— James Harden (@JHarden13) July 26, 2019Ten-time All-Star Kevin Durant was on the roster then too, of course, but a deeper dive into the numbers shows just how much better offensively the Thunder were in that season when Westbrook and Harden shared the floor.Per 100 possessions, they averaged more points (113.8 to 102.8), more offensive rebounds (13.2 to 10.2), more assists (19.4 to 19.2) and scored more points off fast breaks (17.7 to 16.0).Perhaps unsurprising, there was a drop-off defensively when Westbrook and Harden were on court together, as OKC conceded more points on average per 100 possessions (103.4 to 97.8).Harden: From sixth man to main manIn the 2011-12 season, Harden’s last with the Thunder, “The Beard” was voted the NBA’s Sixth Man of the Year for his performances off the bench, when he averaged 16.8 points per game.In his first year in Houston, Harden averaged a whopping 25.9 points per game — the increase of 9.1 points per game representing the fourth-largest jump of all time among players who switched teams after averaging at least 15 points per game in the previous season.7 – James Harden has seven games this season with 50+ points, the eighth-most ever in a single #NBA season. Unstoppable. #Rockets #RunAsOne pic.twitter.com/qBtMkqbpXe— OptaLarry (@OptaLarry) March 21, 2019Moreover, among all Sixth Man of the Year winners, Harden has the five highest scoring seasons of all time — including last season, when he poured in 2,818 points in 78 games at a staggering average of 36.1.All-around RussIt was after Durant’s departure to the Warriors in 2016 when Westbrook ascended from second fiddle to superstar. Westbrook’s numbers greatly improved in his first year without Harden and Durant. He averaged 31.6 points (up from 23.5 in the previous season), 10.7 rebounds (up from 7.8 in the previous season) and 10.4 assists per game (the same as the previous season).That season — when Westbrook was named the league’s MVP — he averaged a triple-double, a feat he also achieved in the following two seasons, despite Paul George’s presence on the Thunder’s roster between 2017 and 2019.Last season, Westbrook took only 28.7 shots per 100 possessions when George was out, down from 35 attempts in 2017-18.20-20-20 – Russell Westbrook joins Wilt Chamberlain as the only players in #NBA history to record a triple-double with 20+ points, 20+ rebounds and 20+ assists. Inconceivable. #ThunderUp pic.twitter.com/JVu8nbdDzi— OptaLarry (@OptaLarry) April 3, 2019last_img read more